Researching
World War II

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9th Infantry
Division

"Old Reliables"



39th Infantry
"Fighting Falcons"
Regiment

History



47th Infantry
"Raiders"
Regiment

History



60th Infantry
"Go Devils"
Regiment

History

Order of Battle

39th Infantry Regiment
47th Infantry Regimemt
60th Infantry Regiment

9th Reconnaissance Troop (Mechanized)
15th Engineer Combat Battalion
9th Medical Battalion

9th Division Artillery
26th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm Howitzer)
60th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm Howitzer)
84th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm Howitzer)
34th Field Artillery Battalion (155 mm Howitzer)

Special Troops
709th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company
9th Quartermaster Company
9th Signal Company
Military Police Platoon
Headquarters Company
Band


Casualties
Killed in Action: 3,856
Wounded in Action: 17,416
Died of Wounds: 648


Commanders
Col . Charles B. Elliott Aug 40
Brig. Gen. Francis W. Honeycutt Sep 40
Maj. Gen. Jacob L. Devers Oct 40 – Jul 41
Maj. Gen. Rene E. DeR. Hoyle Aug 41 – Jul 42
Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy Aug 42 – Aug 44
Maj. Gen. Louis A. Craig Aug 44 – May 45
Brig. Gen. Jesse A. Ladd May 45 – Feb 46
Maj. Gen. Horace L. McBride
Mar 46 to inactivation


Campaigns
Algeria - French Morocco
8 - 11 Nov 42
Tunisia
17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43
Sicily
9 July - 17 Aug 43
Normandy
6 Jun – 24 Jul 44
Northern France
15 Sep 44 – 21 Mar 45
Rhineland
15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45
Ardennes - Alsace
16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45
Central Europe
22 Mar - 11 May 45


Medals
Distinguished Unit Citations
24
Medal of Honor
4
Distinguished Service Cross
76
Distinguished Service Medal
3
Silver Star
2,282
Legionaires of Merit
19
Soldiers Medal
100
Bronze Star Medal
6,593
Air Medal
129


Days of Combat
304




1940

 
1 Aug-
Activated at Ft. Briggs, North Carolina.
1941
 
Oct-
Participated in the Carolina Maneuvers and amphibious-training.
1942
 
1 Aug-
Redesignated 9th Infantry Division.
1 Aug-
Left Ft. Braggs, North Carolina.
8 Nov-
Elements of the division landed at Algiers, Safi, and Port Lyautey. The 3rd Battalion of the 47th Infantry Regiment took Safi as the first liberation of a city from Axis control in World War II.
11 Nov-
French border collapses and the division patrolled the Spanish Moroccan border.
25 Nov-
The division arrived Ft. Dix, NJ.
11 Dec-
The division departed New York P/E.
25 Dec-
The division landed North Africa.
1943
 
26 Mar-
The division entered combat.
Feb-
The 9th returned to Tunisia in February and engaged in small defensive actions and patrol activity.
28 Mar-
The division launched an attack in southern Tunisia.
7 May-
The division fought its way north into Bizerte.
9 Aug-
The division landed at Palermo, Sicily and took part in the capture of Randazzo and Messina.
25 Nov-
The division was sent to England.
27 Nov-
Arrived England for further training.
1944
 
10 Jun-
The division hit Utah Beach and drove on to Cherbourg
14 Jun-
Entered Combat.
Jul-
After a brief rest in July the division took part in the St. Lo break-through.
Aug-
The division helped close the Falaise Gap.
8 Aug-
The 9th crossed the Marne.
28 Aug-
The division swept through Saarlautern.
2 Sep-
Entrered into Belgium.
14 Sep-
Entered Germany.
Nov-Dec-
The division held defensive positions from Monschau to Losheim.
10 Dec-
The division moved north to Bergrath, Germany and launched an attack toward the Roer taking Echtz and Schlich.
Dec-
The division held defensive positions from Kalterherberg to Elsenborn through January 1945.
1945
 
30 Jan-
The division jumped off from Monschau in a drive across the Roer and to the Rhine.
7 Mar-
The division crossed at Remagen. After breaking out of the Remagen bridgehead, the 9th assisted in the sealing and clearing of the Ruhr Pocket.
14 Apr-
The division moved 150 miles east to Nordhausen and attacked in the Harz Mountains.
21 Apr-
The division relieved the 3d Armored Division along the Mulde River near Dessau and held that line until VE-day.


9th Infantry Division
in World War II

CD 1
Open all files from the folders on the CDs
Install Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader from CD 1

The files below are found on CD 1


26 Mar - 8 Apr 43

9th Infantry Division

Report on
Southern Tunisia
Operations

CD 1
33 Pages - PDF


11 Apr - 8 May 43

9th Infantry Division

Report on
Northern Tunisia
Operations

CD 1
63 Pages - PDF


6 -7 Jun 44

1st Army
Utah Beach
Normandy



CD 1
28 Pages - PDF


14 Jun - 1 Juil 44

9th Infantry Division

Operations
Contentin Peninsula
France

CD 1
86 Pages - PDF


17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43

Tunisia
Campaign

CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


6 Jun - 24 Jul 44

Normandy
Campaign

CD 1
51 Pages - PDF


Aug 44 - Mar 45

Rivera
To Rhine

CD 1
630 Pages - PDF


11 Sep - 16 Dec 44

Siegfried Line
Campaign

CD 1
697 Pages - PDF


16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45

Ardennes-Alsace






CD 1
56 Pages - PDF


Jan 45

The Last
Offensive





CD 1
555 Pages - PDF


1944

Army Talks
Classified Publication
of the USArmy

Europesn Theater
of Operations

CD 1
32 Issues - PDF


9th Division
Medal of
Honor Citations





CD 1
6 Pages - PDF


National Art Gallery

Guide to
Research Resources World War II

CD 1
2 0 Pages - PDF


Chart

Organization
USArmy Regiment


CD 1
1 Page - PDF


World War II
Situation Maps
Europe



CD 1
83 Pages - PDF


Map

United States Map
USArmy Regions


CD 1
1 Pages - PDF
The files below are found on CD 2


8 Nov - 11 Nov 42

Algeria - French
Morocco

CD 2
32 Pages - PDF


Jul 43

Sicily and the
Surrender of Italy

CD 2
630 Pages - PDF


9 Jul - 17 Aug 43

Sicily Campaign


CD 2
28 Pages - PDF


6 Jun - 1 Jul 44

Cross - Channel Attack


CD 2
538 Pages - PDF


1 Jul - 11 Sep 44

Breakout
and Pursuit

CD 2
771 Pages - PDF


25 Jul - 14 Sep 44

Northern France


CD 2
32 Pages - PDF


15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45

Rhineland


CD 2
36 Pages - PDF


22 Mar - 11 May 45

Central Europe


CD 2
36 Pages - PDF


Long Road
To Victory



CD 2
20 Pages - PDF


US Air Force
Combat Chronology
1941-45


CD 2
743 Pages - PDF


"Fighting Divisions"

Army
Divisions History

CD 2
241 Pages - PDF


Supreme Command

European
Theater Operations

CD 2
631 Pages - PDF


Brief History
of World War II





CD 2
55 Pages - PDF


APOs

Army Postal Service
Addresses

Alphabetical Listings

CD 2
149 Pages - PDF


Form SF180
Records Request

Request for
Personnel Records


CD 2
3 Pages - PDF


Research Guide

National Archives
Finding Information of
Personal Participation
in World War II Guide

CD 2
5 Pages - PDF


Mines - Booby Traps
Identification Guide

CD 2
42 Pages - PDF


Aircraft
Nose Art

CD 2
34 Pages - PDF


Aircraft
Recognition Guide

CD 2
17 Pages - PDF



Aircraft
Insignia Poster

CD 2
1 Page - PDF



US
World War II
Posters

CD 2
250 Pages - PDF



German
World War II
Posters

CD 2
75 Pages - PDF



Rank
Insignia of Grade


CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Patch
Identification
Guide

CD 2
19 Pages - PDF


Chart

Enlisted Men's
Uniform Insignias


CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Song Lyrics

Army
HIT KIT
of Popular Songs

CD 2
6 Pages - PDF


VE Day
Eisenhower Flyer




CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Comic Book
Covers




CD 2
8 Pages - PDF
The files below are found on CD 3


Music

"Singing Soldiers"

Winners Second
All Army Soldier
Singing Contest

1954-55
19 Song LP Record
2 Album Set

CD 3
Info - PDF
Files - Folder


Music

What Do You
Do In The Infantry ?

American Military March
Semper Fidelis (Marines)




CD 3
Files - Folder


Radio

DDay
Radio Broadcasts
~
13 - BBC/CBS/NBC
Normandy Invasion
Broadcasts
~
24 - CBS Invasion
1 Hour Broadcasts


CD 3
Files - Folder



Cartoons

11
BANNED
World War II
Cartoons

Popeye
Superman
Donald Duck
Bugs Bunny
more ...

CD 3
Info - PDF



9th Infantry
Division

"Old Reliables"
9th Infantry Division History
The 9th Infantry Division was among the first U.S. combat units to engage in offensive ground operations during World War II. (The others were the 32nd and the 41st in the Pacific on New Guinea, Carlson's Raiders on Makin Island, the 1st Marine and the Americal on the Guadalcanal, and, alongside the 9th in North Africa, were the 3rd Infantry and the 2nd Armored Divisions.) The 9th saw its first combat on 8 November 1942, when its elements landed at Algiers, Safi, and Port Lyautey, with the taking of Safi by the 3rd Battalion of the 47th Infantry Regiment standing as the first liberation of a city from Axis control in World War II.

With the collapse of French resistance on 11 November 1942, the division patrolled the Spanish Moroccan border. The 9th returned to Tunisia in February and engaged in small defensive actions and patrol activity. On 28 March 1943 it launched an attack in southern Tunisia and fought its way north into Bizerte, 7 May. In August the 9th landed at Palermo, Sicily, and took part in the capture of Randazzo and Messina. After returning to England for further training, the division hit Utah Beach on 10 June 1944 (D plus 4), cut off the Cotentin Peninsula, drove on to Cherbourg and penetrated the port's heavy defenses.

After a brief rest in July, the division took part in the St. Lo break-through and in August helped close the Falaise Gap. Turning east, the 9th crossed the Marne, 28 August, swept through Saarlautern, and in November and December held defensive positions from Monschau to Losheim. Moving north to Bergrath, Germany, it launched an attack toward the Roer, 10 December, taking Echtz and Schlich. From mid-December through January 1945, the division held defensive positions from Kalterherberg to Elsenborn. On 30 January the division jumped off from Monschau in a drive across the Roer and to the Rhine, crossing at Remagen, 7 March.

After breaking out of the Remagen bridgehead, the 9th assisted in the sealing and clearing of the Ruhr Pocket, then moved 150 miles (240 km) east to Nordhausen and attacked in the Harz Mountains, 14–20 April. On 21 April the Division relieved the 3d Armored Division along the Mulde River, near Dessau, and held that line until VE-day.


39th Infantry
Regiment
"Fighting Falcons"
39th Infantry Regiment History

1942
--- Nov - The division stormed the beaches of Algiers
1943

- 31 Jul - The 39th first serious reverse at the battle of Troina.
1944
- 10 Jun - The 39th landed at Utah Beach, joined the 47th
----- Infantry Regiment in capturing Roetgen, fought valiantly
------through the Battle of the Bulge and helped secure the
----- Remagen bridgehead.


During World War II the regiment fought as part of the 9th Infantry Division. The Fighting Falcons of the 39th became the first unit of United States combat troops to set foot on foreign soil when they stormed the beaches of Algiers in November 1942. During fighting in Sicily, Italy, the regiment came under the command of the legendary Colonel Harry A. "Paddy" Flint who gave the regiment its triple A- Bar Nothing slogan …Anything, Anywhere, Anytime - Bar Nothing. The regiment took great pride in the AAA-O slogan, displaying it on their helmets and vehicles, even in combat. When questioned about the soundness of the practice, Colonel Flint confidently declared, "The enemy who sees our regiment in combat, if they live through the battle, will know to run the next time they see us coming." General George Patton commented upon Colonel Flint in the following manner: "Paddy Flint is clearly nuts, but he fights well." On 31 July 1943, while temporarily attached to the 1st Infantry Division), the 39th suffered its first serious reverse at the battle of Troina, when entrenched and heavily-armed German forces repelled an assault by the 39th Infantry Regiment with heavy casualties.

Later in the war, the 39th landed at Utah Beach on 10 June 1944 (D+4) with other reinforcing units and then fought through the rugged French countryside. Colonel Flint was killed six weeks after the regiment entered combat. The Fighting Falcons joined the 47th Infantry Regiment in capturing Roetgen, the first German town to fall in World War II. The 39th fought valiantly through the Battle of the Bulge, helped secure the Remagen bridgehead and roared across Germany as the allied forces finished off the last of the German resistance. When the dust settled following VE day, the 39th Regiment held campaign streamers from some of the bloodiest and most hard fought battles of the war - Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Normandy, Northern France, The Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe. It was cited twice by the Belgians for valorous actions and awarded the Belgian Fourragère. It also received two French Croix de Guerre with Palm, the French Fourragère, and three Presidential Unit Citations.

According to Col Wm Whitesel, USA Ret., the slogan is AAA Bar None. Col Whitesel was a 1LT with the H Company in the Regiment at the Huertgen/Ardennes in 1944.


47th Infantry
Regiment
"Raiders"
47th Infantry Regiment History
1940
- 1 Aug - The 47th Infantry Regiment was reactivated at Fort
------- - - Bragg, North Carolina.
1941
1942

- Nov - The 47th Regimental Combat Team stormed the
--------- beaches of Safi, Morocco and continued across
--------- North Africa.
1943
-- 1 Aug - The 47th landed at Palermo, Sicily.-
- 26 Aug - Sicily was declared in the hands of the Allies.
1944
- 10 Jun - The 47th Regiment landed on Utah Beach,
------------ Normandy.
- 14 Jun - Combat patrols were in contact with the Germans.
- 16 Jun - The 47th Regiment blocked the last escape route
------------ for the Germans in the Contentin Peninsula.
- 25 Jun - Cherbourg captured.
- 28 Jun - The Regiments 2nd Battalion became the first
------------ Allied troops to enter the city. Stiff resistance was
------------ encountered.
------ Jul - The division halted for necessary rest and
------------- re-supply.
---- 9 Jul - The 47th was in the "Battle of the Hedgerows",
------------- one of the bloodiest battles and toughest
-------------- encountersof the French campaign.
---- Aug - The 47th crossed the Seine River.
- 14 Sep - The invasion of Germany begins.
- 17 Sep - The 47th became the first Allied unit to pierce the ----------------- Siegfried Line.
----- Dec - The 47th ripped open the way to the German
------------- counter-offensive at the Battle of the Bulge.
1945
------ Apr - Elements of the 47th Infantry Regiment and the
------------- 337th Russian Rifle Regiment joined ranks.

The 47th Infantry Regiment was reactivated again on August 1st, 1940 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

In early November, 1942, in the campaign to secure the northern coast of Africa, the 47th Regimental Combat Team stormed the beaches of Safi, Morocco. The 47th continued across North Africa with the Allies in their successful campaign to drive the German armies from that continent.

Landing at Palermo, Sicily on August 1st, 1943, the Raiders swung into action one week later. On August 26th, Sicily was officially declared in the hands of the Allies.

On D-Day plus 4, June 10th, 1944, the 47th Regiment landed on Utah Beach, Normandy. By June 14th, 1944, combat patrols were in contact with the Germans and by nightfall of the 16th the 47th Regiment blocked the last escape route for the Germans in the Contentin Peninsula.

The famous port of Cherbourg was next and its capture is one of the brightest chapters in the 9th Division history. With the help of sister regiments the 47th laid siege to the city. Stubborn opposition greeted the Raiders, for the enemy held the high ground and other strategic positions. However, just after noon on June 25th, 1944, the Regiments 2nd Battalion became the first Allied troops to enter the city. Stiff resistance was encountered until the 28th of June, the day Cherbourg fell.

The 2nd and 3rd Battalions received Distinguished Unit Citations for their gallantry and heroism in the seizure of the city. For a few days 9th Division operations halted for necessary rest and re-supply. The order to resume combat came on July 9th and soon elements of the 47th were in the midst of the "Battle of the Hedgerows", one of the bloodiest battles and toughest encounters of the French campaign.

With the breakthrough at St. Lo the rush was on. Innumerable Allied units raced across France in pursuit of the retreating Germans. By August 1944, the 47th had forded the Seine River and headed for the Vesles and a memorable anniversary. It was in August 1918 that the 47th Regiment battled over the Vesles in a bloody crossing.

Twenty-six years later the regiment crossed the river unopposed at the same point. In crossing they passed a monument erected to commemorate their heroic efforts in World War I. Belgium was next for the 47th and they gained another first - this time they were the first Allied troops to set foot on Belgium soil in the drive for Germany.

Then the long awaited invasion of Germany began. On September 14th, 1944, the Raiders breached the mighty Siegfried Line. Three days later the 47th became the first Allied unit to pierce the Siegfried Line.

Following the battle of the Hurtgen Forest, the regiment was directed to shift north and drive to the city of Frenz, where they fought to capture Frenzerburg Castle. Despite staggering U.S. losses, the city and castle fell. The 1st Battalion and Medical Detachement received the Distinguished Unit Citation for their action in the battle which punctuated 145 continuous days of combat for the Raiders.

The German counter-offensive known as the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, hit the 47th full force but it repulsed the attacks and soon ripped open the way to the center of Germany.

The famous Rhine River was now in sight and one of the most glorious chapters in the history of the U.S. Army was about to take place at the Ludendorff Bridge near Remagen.This key span marked the spot where the first Infantry Regiment since the Napoleonic Wars battled across the Rhine. The 47th was forced to earn this distinction by engaging in some of the most savage warfare of World War II. The Germans showered the Ludendorff Bridge with shrapnel and shells. Through this wall of death, the 47th pushed forward, and in March 1945 it established a bridgehead and held it against all attempts to dislodge them.

Finally, in the last week of April, 1945, elements of the 47th Infantry Regiment and the 337th Russian Rifle Regiment joined ranks. The once mighty Third Reich had been defeated and among its conquerors stood the Raiders of the 47th Infantry Regiment.



60th Infantry
Regiment
"Go Devils"
60th Infantry Regiment History

1940
-- 1 Aug - Assigned to the 9th Division.
- 10 Aug - Activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Moved to
------------ Chester, South Carolina for maneuvers, and returned ------------- to Fort Bragg.
1942
- 18 Sep - Transferred to Norfolk, Virginia for Amphibious
-------------Training.
- 27 Oct - Departed Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation for
------------ North Africa.
-- 8 Nov - Assaulted North Africa.
1943
- 31 Jul - Landed in Sicily.
- 25 Nov - Arrived in England on.
1944
- 11 Jun - Landed in France.
--- 2 Sep - Crossed into Belgium.
- 15 Sep - Entered Germany.
- 18 Dec - Attached to 104th Infantry Division.
- 22 Dec - Attached to 2nd Armored Division.
1945
--- 4 Mar - Attached to 9th Armored Division.
--- 8 Mar - Attached to 7th Armored Division.
- 22 Apr - Attached to 3rd Armored Division.
- 30 Nov - 28 Dec 1946 On Occupation Duty at Geisenfeld,
----- Germany on VJ Day. Inactivated in Germany.


After the First World War the 60th Infantry was inactivated in South Carolina in 1921. A generation later, in August 1940, war in Europe resulted in a rapid expansion of the US Army. The 60th Infantry was reactivated and assigned to the 9th Infantry Division.

The 60th Infantry spearheaded the November 1942, invasion of French Morocco at Port Lyautey in Operation Torch, winning the arrowhead assault landing device in an action which laid the basis for its nickname 'Scouts Out'.

At the time of the invasion, there was great confusion among the Navy coxswains about the landing sites. They either placed their units in the wrong sector, or put them on the beaches very late. The 60th, for example, landed at 05:30, 40 minutes late, giving the defending Vichy French time to organize. The 1st Battalion landed 2,800 yards north of their assigned beach, and were engaged by French light tanks once ashore.

The 2nd and 3rd Battalions were strafed by French planes. Company E, 2nd Battalion, was stopped completely at a strongpoint, the Port Lyautey lighthouse. The 2nd Battalion's eventual objective was to take an ancient fortress, the Kasba. Once the landing points were completely secured, engagements were fought between small units and opposing batteries. The regiment culminated its successful North African campaigns with a defense on 18 April 1943 (Easter Sunday) against a massive German attack, and earned a Presidential Unit Citation.

The Germans hit the "Go Devils" from all four sides with 2 full battalions of infantry supported by artillery. After a four hours attack that failed, the Germans threw in the towel, leaving 116 dead, 48 wounded, and many prisoners in American hands.

In 1943 during the battle of Sedjenane Valley along the Tunisia-Algeria border, it was during the fanatical drive by the 60th Regiment that a captured German general's diary gave the regiment its nickname. In his account of American actions against the Germans, he wrote "Look at those devils go!" Thereafter, the 60th Infantry Regiment became known as the "Go Devils".

In Sicily the regiment continued its winning ways, culminating in the famous "Ghost March," where the unit infiltrated enemy lines and broke open the last of the German resistance. The Regiment landed at Palermo, Sicily on 5 August. Their first combat action was the first of the infiltrations they would make in Sicily. The Regiment flanked the city of Troina, which forced the German artillery protecting the Infantry in the city to withdraw, allowing other U.S. divisions to easily swallow up the Germans in the city.

Next, the Go Devils chased the retreating Germans east towards Randazzo. The pursuit was hindered by a number booby traps, demolitions, anti-tank and personnel mines, craters and blown bridges. Regardless, the 60th completed its flanking movement around Randazzo, which allowed its sister regiment, the 39th Infantry, to take the city. With Randazzo taken the road to Messina was open; and the city was taken on 17 August. Rest and further training followed for some two months. On 11 November 1943, the 60th embarked for Winchester, England.

On 11 June 1944, the 60th Regiment debarked at Utah Beach on the Cotentin Peninsula, Normandy, France. On the 12th, driving hard toward the St. Colombe in France, the 2nd Battalion, 60th Regiment completely outdistanced the rest of the 9th Division. For a time, the unit was even believed to be lost. Actually, the battalion had overrun the German defenses in the face of murderous fire and had cut the main highway to the northwest.

Instead of withdrawing, the battalion set up a bridgehead on the Douve River and held the position for seven hours until the rest of the division caught up to them, thus facilitating the cutting of the peninsula. Due to this demonstration of rapid penetration and maneuver, the "Scouts Out" motto originated for the Second Battalion. "Scouts Out" is the official greeting of the battalion.

In France during the heroic days of June 1944, the Regiment once again led the way for the 9th Division as it spearheaded the American advance out of the beachhead that cut the Contentin Peninsula. While the 39th and 47th Infantry Regiments secured the vital Port of Cherburg, the 60th cleared Cape La Hague, northwest of Cherbourg, where John E. Butts was killed. At the pivotal crossing of the Douve River, 1LT John Butts earned the Medal of Honor and the Battalion earned its second Presidential Unit Citation.

Following the breakout at St. Lo, the regiment rushed south in Operation Cobra and helped relieve the battered 30th Infantry Division, that had been surrounded by the Germans in their own counterattack (Operation Luttich). Next, the regiment turned east and helped in the closure and clearing of the Falaise Pocket. Continuing east, the regiment crossed the Marne, Aisne, and the Seine Rivers in a matter of days. Next the regiment entered Belgium and made its second combat crossing of the Meuse River. Here, LTC Matt Urban earned his Medal of Honor, having gone AWOL from a hospital to rejoin his troops and lead them in combat.

After the bitter and bloody struggle in the Huertegen Forest, the Regiment fell back to the Monschau area where its efforts won it a third Presidential Unit Citation in the snow and bitter cold of the Battle of the Bulge. The 60th then was the first to capture the Schwammanuel Dam on the Roer River. Continuing south, the Regiment was one of the first to cross the Rhine at Remagen.

After expanding the bridgehead, the Go Devils shot northeast, where they helped seal and destroy the Ruhr Pocket. Continuing northeast, the Regiment advanced toward the Harz Mountains, where for the first time the 60th had attached to them a platoon of black volunteers. While destroying a German roadblock, one black soldier, Pfc. Jack Thomas, won the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions.

After relieving the 3rd Armored Division, the Regiment held that line until VE day, and met up with Russian soldiers soon after. For their actions in Central Europe, the regiment won a fourth Presidential Unit Citation. The Regiment was inactivated in November 1946 while on occupation duty in Germany.



9th Infantry
Division
Campaigns of World War II

Algeria - French Morocco
8 - 11 Nov 42
Tunisia
17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43
Sicily
9 July - 17 Aug 43
Normandy
6 Jun – 24 Jul 44
Northern France
15 Sep 44 – 21 Mar 45
Rhineland
15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45
Ardennes - Alsace
16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45
Central Europe
22 Mar - 11 May 45


Algeria–French Morocco
8 to 11 November 1942

Events bringing the United States Army to North Africa had begun more than a year before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. For both the Axis and the Allies, the Mediterranean Sea area was one of uncertain priority. On the Axis side, the location of Italy made obvious Rome’s interest in the region. But the stronger German partner pursued interests hundreds of miles north. A similar division of emphasis characterized the Allies. To the British the Mediterranean Sea was the vital link between the home islands and long-held Asian possessions as well as Middle Eastern oil fields. To the Americans, however, the area had never been one of vital national interest and was not seen as the best route to Berlin. But the fall of France in June 1940 had also brought a new dimension to the region. The surrender of Paris left 120,000 French troops in West and North Africa and much of the French fleet in Atlantic and Mediterranean ports. Both the Axis and Allies saw overseas French forces as the decisive advantage that would allow them to achieve their contradictory objectives in the Mediterranean.


Tunisia
17 November 1942 – 13 May 1943

Victory at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers gave the United States Army and its British ally solid toeholds in the western Mediterranean Theater of Operations. But it offered no guarantee of easy access to Italy or southern Europe, or even to the eastern end of the Mediterranean, where the British desperately needed assistance to secure Egypt and strategic resources in the Near East. The sudden entrance of American forces during 8–11 November 1942 created an awkward deployment in which two pairs of opposing armies fought in North Africa, one in Tunisia, the other in Libya. Neither Axis nor Allies found any satisfaction in the situation; much fighting remained before either adversary could consider North Africa secure.

If American commanders and troops thought their brief combat experience in French Morocco and Algeria in November 1942 was adequate preparation to face hardened Axis units in a lengthy campaign, the fighting in Tunisia brought about a harsh reappraisal. With few exceptions, French units in North Africa had been more intent on upholding national honor than inflicting casualties and damage; those that offered determined resistance were at a marked disadvantage in terms of weapons, equipment, supplies, and numbers. In Tunisia, however, American soldiers found themselves faced with well-trained, battle-tested units skillfully using the most advanced weapons and innovative combined arms tactics repeatedly to frustrate Allied plans. The result was painful to Army units involved and a shock to the American public: five months of almost continuous setbacks with commensurably high casualties.


Sicily Campaign
9 July to 17 August 1943

On the night of 9–10 July 1943, an Allied armada of 2,590 vessels launched one of the largest combined operations of World War II—the invasion of Sicily. Over the next thirty-eight days, half a million Allied soldiers, sailors, and airmen grappled with their German and Italian counterparts for control of this rocky outwork of Hitler’s “Fortress Europe.” When the struggle was over, Sicily became the first piece of the Axis homeland to fall to Allied forces during World War II. More important, it served as both a base for the invasion of Italy and as a training ground for many of the officers and enlisted men who eleven months later landed on the beaches of Normandy.


Normandy
6 June – 24 July 1944

A great invasion force stood off the Normandy coast of France as dawn broke on 6 June 1944: 9 battleships, 23 cruisers, 104 destroyers, and 71 large landing craft of various descriptions as well as troop transports, mine sweepers, and merchantmen—in all, nearly 5,000 ships of every type, the largest armada ever assembled. The naval bombardment that began at 0550 that morning detonated large minefields along the shoreline and destroyed a number of the enemy’s defensive positions. To one correspondent, reporting from the deck of the cruiser HMS Hillary, it sounded like “the rhythmic beating of a gigantic drum” all along the coast. In the hours following the bombardment, more than 100,000 fighting men swept ashore to begin one of the epic assaults of history, a “mighty endeavor,” as President Franklin D. Roosevelt described it to the American people, “to preserve. . . our civilization and to set free a suffering humanity.”


Nothern France
25 July–14 September 1944

As July 1944 entered its final week, Allied forces in Normandy faced, at least on the surface, a most discouraging situation. In the east, near Caen, the British and Canadians were making little progress against fierce German resistance. In the west, American troops were bogged down in the Norman hedgerows. These massive, square walls of earth, five feet high and topped by hedges, had been used by local farmers over the centuries to divide their fields and protect their crops and cattle from strong ocean winds. The Germans had turned these embankments into fortresses, canalizing the American advance into narrow channels, which were easily covered by antitank weapons and machine guns. The stubborn defenders were also aided by some of the worst weather seen in Normandy since the turn of the century, as incessant downpours turned country lanes into rivers of mud. By 25 July, the size of the Allied beachhead had not even come close to the dimensions that pre–D-day planners had anticipated, and the slow progress revived fears in the Allied camp of a return to the static warfare of World War I. Few would have believed that, in the space of a month and a half, Allied armies would stand triumphant at the German border.


Rhineland
15 September 1944 – 21 March 1945

The Rhineland Campaign, although costly for the Allies, had clearly been ruinous for the Germans. The Germans suffered some 300,000 casualties and lost vast amounts of irreplaceable equipment. Hitler, having demanded the defense of all of the German homeland, enabled the Allies to destroy the Wehrmacht in the West between the Siegfried Line and the Rhine River. Now, the Third Reich lay virtually prostrate before Eisenhower’s massed armies.


Ardennes - Alsace Campaign
16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945

In August 1944, while his armies were being destroyed in Normandy, Hitler secretly put in motion actions to build a large reserve force, forbidding its use to bolster Germany’s beleaguered defenses. To provide the needed manpower, he trimmed existing military forces and conscripted youths, the unfit, and old men previously untouched for military service during World War II.

In September Hitler named the port of Antwerp, Belgium, as the objective. Selecting the Eifel region as a staging area, Hitler intended to mass twenty-five divisions for an attack through the thinly held Ardennes Forest area of southern Belgium and Luxembourg. Once the Meuse River was reached and crossed, these forces would swing northwest some 60 miles to envelop the port of Antwerp. The maneuver was designed to sever the already stretched Allied supply lines in the north and to encircle and destroy a third of the Allies’ ground forces. If successful, Hitler believed that the offensive could smash the Allied coalition, or at least greatly cripple its ground combat capabilities, leaving him free to focus on the Russians at his back door.


Central Europe Campaign
22 March – 11 May 1945
By the beginning of the Central Europe Campaign of World War II, Allied victory in Europe was inevitable. Having gambled his future ability to defend Germany on the Ardennes offensive and lost, Hitler had no real strength left to stop the powerful Allied armies. Yet Hitler forced the Allies to fight, often bitterly, for final victory. Even when the hopelessness of the German situation became obvious to his most loyal subordinates, Hitler refused to admit defeat. Only when Soviet artillery was falling around his Berlin headquarters bunker did the German Fuehrer begin to perceive the final outcome of his megalomaniacal crusade.


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